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    Diabetes: Type I, Insulin Dependent, and Type II Diabetes: Benefits of Exercise

    Type 1 or 2 Diabetes?


    Learn about type 1 and 2 diabetes, insulin production, and benefits of daily exercise.


    Diabetes in America

    Diabetes is a group of diseases marked by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in
    insulin production, insulin action, or both. Diabetes can lead to serious complications and premature death, but people with diabetes can take steps to control the disease and lower the risk ofcomplications.

    Diabetes Type I

    Type 1 diabetes was previously called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes. Type 1 diabetes develops when the body's immune system destroys pancreatic beta cells, the only cells in the body that make the hormone insulin that regulates blood glucose. To survive, people with type 1 diabetes must have insulin delivered by injection or a pump. This form of diabetes usually strikes children and young adults, although disease onset can occur at any age. In adults, type 1 diabetes accounts for 5% to 10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes.

    Risk factors for type 1 diabetes may be autoimmune, genetic, or environmental. There is no known way to prevent type 1 diabetes. Several clinical trials for preventing type 1 diabetes are currently in progress or are being planned.

    Diabetes Type II

    Type II diabetes was previously called non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adultonset diabetes. In adults, type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90% to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. It usually begins as insulin resistance, a disorder in which the cells do not use insulin properly. As the need for insulin rises, the pancreas gradually loses its ability to produce it. Type II diabetes is associated with older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism, physical inactivity, and race/ethnicity. African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, American Indians, and some Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians or Pacific Islanders are at particularly high risk for type II diabetes and its complications. Type II diabetes in children and adolescents, although still rare, is being diagnosed more frequently among American Indians, African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, and Asians/Pacific Islanders.

    Genstational Diabetes

    Gestational diabetes is a form of glucose intolerance diagnosed during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes occurs more frequently among African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, and American Indians. It is also more common among obese women and women with a family history of diabetes. During pregnancy, gestational diabetes requires treatment to normalize maternal blood glucose levels to avoid complications in the infant. Immediately after pregnancy, 5% to 10% of women with gestational diabetes are found to have diabetes, usually type 2. Women who have had gestational diabetes have a 40% to 60% chance of developing diabetes in the next 5–10 years.

    Othe Types of Diabetes

    Other types of diabetes result from specific genetic conditions (such as maturity-onset diabetes of
    youth), surgery, medications, infections, pancreatic disease, and other illnesses. Such types of
    diabetes account for 1% to 5% of all diagnosed cases.

    Whether you are a type I or type II diabetic, better diet and exercise habits can help you to live a healthier lifestyle. Get a personal trainer to help you devise a fitness program suited to your lifestyle, limitations, and goals.


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